Friday, May 03, 2019
May is Huntington’s Disease Awareness Month. As in past years, the Huntington’s Disease Society of America (HDSA) is encouraging HD families to share their experiences in a social media campaign, #LetsTalkAboutHD.
Other HD advocacy groups are also marking HD Awareness Month.
As a presymptomatic HD gene carrier who lost his mother to HD in 2006, I kicked off my own participation as a guest May 1 on Help 4 HD International’s podcast Help 4 HD Radio (click here to hear the program.)
I recalled my family’s struggle with HD in an interview with podcast host and HD gene carrier Lauren Holder, the Help 4 HD Radio producer and the 2014 HDSA Person of the Year.
“We need to continue telling our stories,” I said in response to Lauren’s question about how to promote HD Awareness Month, emphasizing the need to attract those unaffected by HD to our cause.
I also highlighted the “real hope” for the first effective HD treatments with clinical trials such as the Ionis-Roche project. These trials are “really unprecedented in the history of HD,” I noted. In the mid-1990s, when my mother was diagnosed, there had been “zero hope,” I recalled.
The next day, I posted HD Awareness Month flyers on my office door at the University of San Diego.
I’m ready for #LetsTalkAboutHD!
Gene Veritas, aka Kenneth P. Serbin, at his office at the University of San Diego (photo by Yi Sun, Ph.D.)
A painful silence
My conversation with Lauren stirred up painful memories – but also provided fresh insight – about my own path from refusing to talk publicly about HD to exiting the “terrible and lonely HD closet” in 2012 with an essay, “Racing Against the Genetic Clock,” in The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Regarding my “coming out” about HD, Lauren wanted to know: “How did it make you feel? Was the process hard? Did you feel a sense of relief?”
“Deep down, I knew that someday I would need to go public, in some way or another, because it’s very hard to be an advocate without telling people about your story,” I said.
I recounted one poignant dilemma – discussed in public for the first time in the podcast – in the early 2000s. Back then, HDSA-San Diego was joining other chapters around the country in hosting the organization’s first fundraising galas.
“I would volunteer for the galas,” I told Lauren. “I was writing the newsletter that we would distribute at the galas. But I would never tell anybody my story.”
I was known in other San Diego circles for my work as a scholar of Brazil, and once I had given a local public talk on that country.
“I had met this one couple [at my Brazil talk],” I explained to Lauren. “And then, a year or two later, they showed up at one of our galas. So it was like, ‘Wow!’ They were wanting to know what I was doing at this gala here. And I said, ‘Well, this is my personal commitment to charity and making a difference.’
“And I didn’t tell them my story,” I explained. “It’s that kind of situation that was very difficult for me, because I was afraid of being outed, because nobody at my work knew my status. I was worried about losing my job and losing my insurance, and, if I were ever to switch jobs, could I get health insurance again? All of the concerns that people in our community, and other communities, have.
“I really just felt bad that I couldn’t – and wouldn’t at that point – share my story.”
Becoming an open, honest advocate
Going public “allowed me to be a much, much better advocate, an honest advocate,” I told Lauren. “I can talk openly about HD and my family situation.”
My essay “Racing Against the Genetic Clock” shocked my colleagues at work and around the country, I recalled.
However, I believed that the article was necessary because I “wanted to take away the fear of talking about Huntington’s disease” for others.
“To this point, I have not, to my knowledge, suffered any discrimination,” I added “And, of course, I’m still asymptomatic. Who knows what will happen if and when I become symptomatic? Things could change.”
However, until now, “I’ve been treated with respect,” I said. Living outside the “HD closet” has “been a very positive experience.”
The prohibition of insurance discrimination for people with pre-existing conditions in the Affordable Care Act and the passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act have further encouraged me, I added.
Going public about one’s HD story is a “personal decision,” I observed.
Those unready to tell their stories openly can still participate in #LetsTalkAboutHD by starting with relatives and close friends, I said.
In the HD community, we all have important stories.
As I’ve told Lauren and so many others, “Together we will defeat HD!”
Sadly, HD and juvenile HD patients continue to die. HD Awareness Month provides our community with the opportunity to renew our energies and tell the world of the urgent need for treatments.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Comedian Rod Man’s heartfelt speech, Ramona Johnston’s death remind us of urgent need to cure Huntington’s disease
In his raw, heartfelt speech in February about the devastation of Huntington’s disease in his extended family, comedian Rod “Rod Man” Thompson reminded his audience of the HD community’s urgent need for help: “We’ve got to find a cure. Any disease: you want to kick his ass.”
On April 4, the story of yet another fallen “HD warrior” drove home how the condition often strikes in the prime of life and is ultimately fatal. That night, Ramona Johnston, the wife of longtime San Diego Chargers football team public relations director and major HD fundraiser Bill Johnston, succumbed to the disease after more than 20 years of brave struggle. Diagnosed at age 39, Ramona was just 60.
“Ramona passed away last night after fighting unbelievably hard against this horrible disease,” Bill wrote on Facebook on April 5. “As much as I knew this day would come, it hurts so bad that my girl is gone. She’s the strongest, toughest, bravest person I know. One of God’s angels on earth finally has peace and is with Him in heaven.”
Introducing Rod Man
HD affects not just individuals but families. To illustrate that, as promised earlier, I’m now providing a detailed report on Rob’s important and moving February 25 keynote address to several hundred scientists, drug hunters, and advocates at the 14th Annual Huntington’s Disease Therapeutics Conference. Sponsored by CHDI Foundation, Inc., the event took place at the Parker Palm Springs hotel in Palm Springs, CA.
A standup comedian, Rod Man was the winner of season 8 (2014) of NBC’s Last Comic Standing reality TV talent competition. He has appeared at Caesar’s Palace in Las Vegas, the Apollo Theater in New York City, and the Gibson Amphitheatre in Los Angeles, where he resides. He has also appeared in film and TV roles, and hosts his own YouTube shows.
“That’s my passion,” said the performer known as Rod Man. “Tonight, we’re going to set a different tone. I am Rod Thompson tonight.”
A native of the small Georgia town of Villa Rica, Rod was the first African-American CHDI keynoter. His family’s story underscored the fact that HD affects people of all ethnicities, as well as both sexes.
“As an African-American, I know that sometimes we don’t get the information,” Rob commented. “I’m here as a black man.”
However, he said, he recognized that HD affects his family just as it does others. He said that he aimed to “promote conversation” and awareness about HD, no matter what a person’s personal or educational background.
Rod "Rod Man" Thompson (right) exchanges laughs with leading HD researcher Steven Hersch, M.D., Ph.D., of Voyager Therapeutics, after Rod's keynote speech (photo by Gene Veritas).
The challenges families face
Rod titled his presentation “The Cycle: My Mother’s Story.” Interlacing humor with wrenching stories of HD’s debilitating physical and mental impact on his 66-year-old mother Shirley, Rod captured the many aspects of HD that families struggle with and doctors and scientists seek to alleviate.
His speech reflected once again how, as an inheritable disease, HD affects the extended family. His elder daughter prepared the slides for his talk. It included photos of Shirley and three aunts – all now in nursing homes – and a cousin also stricken with the disease.
Rob recalled how his maternal grandmother was initially misdiagnosed with cerebral palsy. Growing up, he was unaware of HD. “I just knew my grandmama was mean,” he said, referring to HD’s psychiatric and behavioral symptoms.
Before arriving in Palm Springs, Rod interviewed his sister, the primary caregiver for his mother in Villa Rica. She described details of Shirley’s daily struggles with HD, as well as the constraints it imposes on her own life.
“I understand how it affects her life,” Rod said. “She said, ‘Yes, it’s a lot to deal with.’”
Because of her “sacrifice” to care for Shirley, Rob’s sister has for now given up her own career dreams in fashion design, Rob added. “I could see the anger build in her, because she feels like, ‘If I don’t, who else is going to?’”
Rod recognized that other HD families face a similar battle. “It’s like having a child sometimes,” he said of the inability of HD people to care for themselves and the challenges faced by caregivers.
Shirley showed symptoms before her official diagnosis in 2016, Rob explained.
“Once they told her, she broke down and cried, because she knows from her sisters and her mama what it does,” he said.
Rod described the terrible physical, cognitive, and psychiatric decline that HD has wrought in his mother.
“I see depression and sadness about stuff that can be a misunderstanding to most people, and they’ll let it go, but she still holds on to it and harbors it,” Rod said.
Because of Shirley’s involuntary movements, the family also keeps kitchen utensils away from her to prevent her from injuring herself or others. She can no longer walk normally.
“Now it’s better for her to eat with her hands, because she’s a little shaky,” Rod explained. “Her body’s not the same.”
Inspiring the scientists
Untested, Rod and his two daughters – a college graduate and a high school student – are also at risk.
Rod and members of his extended have candid conversations about testing. However, he added, “Most people in my family are scared to get tested.” That reflects the majority attitude in the HD community.
However, Rob hopes for a cure, hence his motivation to keynote the conference. “I appreciate what you guys do in your work day to day,” he said. “You all do admirable work. Hopefully, by telling my story, and others like me, you’ll get inspired.”
Rod received a standing ovation.
You can watch Rod’s address in the video below.
Celebrating Ramona’s life
Ramona died at Edgemoor Hospital in Santee, CA. The highly regarded public long-term care facility has cared for dozens of HD patients over the last few decades.
In early 2017, when the Chargers announced their move to Los Angeles, Bill made a gutsy, loving decision: after 38 years with the team, he quit so that Ramona could stay at Edgemoor. He visited her there each morning before heading to work.
“Everybody would make the same decision I am making if they were in my shoes,” Bill said at the time. “It’s just the situation I find myself in.” (Click here to read more.)
Bill now works for the San Diego Padres baseball team, which has supported his advocacy.
Ramona’s son Jared tested negative for HD. Untested, daughter Hayley is the vice president of the San Diego Chapter of the Huntington’s Disease Society of America (HDSA). She and Bill continue as leading advocates in Southern California. Their efforts have raised almost $3 million for HDSA.
A Celebration of Life will take place at 1 p.m., April 17 at Skyline Church, 11330 Campo Road, La Mesa, CA. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions may be made to HDSA or www.HelpCureHD.org.
The Johnston team at the 2014 Rock-n-Roll Marathon raising funds and awareness for HDSA. Bill has his arm around Ramona, in wheelchair. Daughter Hayley stands directly behind Bill (photo by Andrew McClanahan/PhotoRun.net).
Friday, March 22, 2019
With preliminary data in hand, the pharmaceutical firm Roche has announced that it will reduce the frequency of dosing in its historic Phase 3 Huntington’s disease gene-silencing clinical trial, thus easing the burden on the participants, their families, and clinics.
In the recently initiated trial, GENERATION HD1, volunteers will now undergo a bi-monthly instead of a monthly spinal tap (lumbar puncture), Roche announced in a letter to the HD community on March 21, 2019. Lumbar punctures are routine and generally safe procedures, although they can cause side effects such as headaches and bleeding. In GENERATION HD1 it will be a 20-minute outpatient procedure.
Roche based the change on new data taken from 46 volunteers after nine months into the 15-month, so-called open-label extension trial (OLE) that it started for its drug RG6042. Those individuals previously participated in the successful Phase 1/2a clinical trial of RG6042, originally developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The drug substantially lowered the amount of mutant huntingtin protein, the purported cause of the disease, in the patients’ cerebrospinal fluid. All OLE participants received the drug (as opposed to 25 percent getting the placebo in the 1/2a trial).
“The 15-month open-label extension of the Phase1/2a study is evaluating RG6042 treatment in doses every month (every four weeks) and every two months (every eight weeks),” the Roche announcement stated. “Review of nine-month data showed effects on lowering mutant huntingtin protein levels in the cerebral spinal fluid that support the exploration of less frequent dosing. Based on the totality of the data, including safety and tolerability, there appears to be no overall advantage to treatment monthly versus every two months.”
GENERATION HD1 has three cohorts of clinical trial volunteers, known as “arms.” The planned 660 participants at 80-90 sites around the world are randomly assigned to one of the arms. The study is double-blinded: neither the volunteers nor the trial physicians and their staff know which arm the volunteers are assigned to.
As a result of the update to the trial, all participants will undergo bi-monthly punctures over 25 months. In “arm 1” of the study, the dosing schedule will switch from a monthly puncture and administering the drug bi-monthly (with a placebo in between) to a bi-monthly puncture with no placebo at all. Arm 3 will go from getting a monthly puncture with placebo to a bi-monthly puncture with placebo.
To test the possibility of reducing potential future drug dosing even further, arm 2 will go from a monthly puncture with the drug to a bi-monthly puncture but with the drug given only every four months (with a placebo in between).
“I am delighted by today’s news that the Generation HD1 protocol will be amended to be less burdensome to trial participants, families and HD clinics around the globe,” George Yohrling, Ph.D., the senior director of mission and scientific affairs for the Huntington’s Disease Society of America, commented in an e-mail. “We are all indebted to the 46 trailblazing research heroes participating in the Phase 1/2a and open-label extension studies that showed us we could not only lower huntingtin in humans, but could do so without monthly infusions of RG6042. Their contributions have forever changed the landscape of HD drug development.”
“The amended trial is good news for the HD community,” LaVonne Goodman, M.D., the founder of Huntington’s Disease Drug Works and a physician to many HD patents, wrote in an e-mail. “For the shorter term, it will make for fewer visits and spinal taps for all involved in the trial. And for the longer term, if the trial at completion is successful by clinical measures, it may further establish whether quarterly dosing is adequate and effective. If so, that would make it easier on the larger number of patients who would need to receive this drug life-long.”
Simplifying the study
Dr. Goodman added: “It was fortunate that the Roche analysis and amendment came at the very beginning of the GENERATION HD1 trial, so that changes could be made without a major time disruption.”
A statement on the Ionis website observed that the new trial design “will greatly simplify the operation of the study.”
Although amending the trial will cause a “slight delay” as Roche seeks regulatory approvals, “we don’t expect this delay will change the timing of study completion, and may even accelerate time to study completion,” the Ionis statement concluded.
“Our team is working to rapidly activate the updated study protocol around the world,” the Roche statement said.
Individuals who had already started GENERATION HD1, which began in January, will be eligible to switch to GEN-EXTEND, an OLE study in which everybody receives RG6042 (no placebo). Participants will receive drug every two or four months.
Great news for the HD community
As the Roche statement noted, the data from the Phase 1/2a OLE do not address the efficacy and long-term safety of the RG6042. That is the purpose of GENERATION HD1.
The update from Roche came in the wake of remarks by GENERATION HD1 scientific coordinator Scott Schobel, M.D., that the company is “actively thinking” about when and how to expand research to target groups beyond the current criterion of early- to mid-stage HD patients aged 25-65. That includes asymptomatic gene carriers like me and sufferers of juvenile HD (click here to read more).
The scientist-written site HDBuzz described the amended trial design as a “surprise” but also a “good thing.”
“Clearly Roche and their partners didn’t predict that we’d be able to deliver [the drug] only every four months when they started the GENERATION HD1 study,” its article on the Roche statement observed. “The fact that they’ve seen data convincing them that we can get away with it is great news for the future of this program, and for future HD community members receiving treatment.”
HDBuzz further noted that other companies using the Ionis-Roche approach (antisense oligonucleotides) can now “consider using longer intervals between treatments.”
As an HD gene carrier and also a sufferer of chronic back pain, I was relieved to learn that the number of lumbar punctures for a potential drug could be as few as three per year.
The Roche announcement coincided with the news that the U.S.-based biotech firm Biogen and its Japanese partner Eisai had announced that they were halting two phase 3 clinical trials for an Alzheimer’s disease drug because an interim analysis concluded that the compound was unlikely to benefit patients. The drug was given through intravenous infusions.
The results of that trial once again underscored the extreme difficulty of treating neurological disorders and the need to the need to have realistic expectations about RG6042 (click here to read more). Not just Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s, but also Parkinson’s, Lou Gehrig’s, and other neurological disorders lack effective treatments.
(Disclosure: I hold a symbolic amount of Ionis shares.)
Thursday, March 14, 2019
Roche ramps up Huntington’s disease clinical trial for early- to mid-stage stage patients, considers ways to expand research
Pharmaceutical giant Roche’s historic gene-silencing clinical trial for Huntington’s disease is now ramping up, with the firm’s scientists “actively thinking” about when and how to expand research to target groups beyond the current criterion of early- to mid-stage HD patients aged 25-65, said the program’s scientific coordinator.
“We’re excited to be moving forward with the Phase 3 program,” said Scott Schobel, M.D., M.S., Roche’s associate group medical director and clinical science leader for the HD drug RG6042. He spoke in a February 26 interview with me during the 14th Annual HD Therapeutics Conference in Palm Springs, CA.
In the Phase 3 clinical trial, called GENERATION HD1, some groups are excluded, such as presymptomatic gene carriers like me (also known as prodromal or premanifest individuals) and juvenile Huntington’s disease (JHD) sufferers, because of the need to first prove RG6042’s efficacy in people where measurements can best be made and, in Dr. Schobel’s words, “most likely to show an effect.”
“Though we do not have a planned prodromal trial, we are actively thinking about what that would look like, should the lead studies be supportive of pursuing that route,” Dr. Schobel said. Similarly, for expanding to JHD and other age groups, “we’re also having discussions.”
“That desire [to expand access] comes from a place of having seen and interacted a lot with the community and understanding the severe unmet need of [treating] juvenile HD, on the one hand, and also the highly compelling nature of preventing the decline from occurring in the first place, the ultimate goal of a Huntington’s therapy,” Dr. Schobel explained. “Symptom reduction is great, and we hope to have great effects in manifest, but well recognize that the ultimate goal would be to help, let’s say, the ‘generation next’ that’s coming.”
At the moment, demonstrating RG6042’s effectiveness in GENERATION HD1 is Roche’s main goal. “For us to get to that expand strategy, we need to have confidence in evidence generation from the lead studies,” Dr. Schobel said. “I don’t think we’re there today, but I think we could hopefully get there in the course of the program.”
(The failure to discover effective Alzheimer’s disease treatments after hundreds of clinical trials has led researchers in that field to start including prodromal individuals in trials.)
Background on GENERATION HD1
Designed and tested in a successful Phase 1/2a clinical trial by Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., RG6042 substantially lowered the amount of mutant huntingtin protein in the trial volunteers’ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Those impressive results prompted Roche, the drug’s license-holder, to accelerate the development of RG6042 and go directly to Phase 3.
In January, Roche announced that it had enrolled its first participant in GENERATION HD1. The trial is currently under way in Canada and the U.S., and Roche recently announced planned sites in Spain and the United Kingdom. It plans a total of approximately 660 participants at 80 to 90 sites in about 15 countries.
In addition to GENERATION HD1, all 46 participants in the Phase 1/2a study enrolled in a 15-month “open-label extension” (OLE) study that assesses the safety and tolerability of longer use of RG6042 and provides further data in support of GENERATION HD1. Those who got the placebo originally now get the medicine.
Roche is also conducting a 15-month observational study – without a drug – called The HD Natural History Study (NHS). It is gauging the natural progression of the disease in up to 100 participants with early-stage HD in Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the U.S. This study seeks to deepen understanding of the role of the mutant huntingtin protein in the progression of HD.
RG6042 is a drug molecule known as an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), an artificial strand of DNA. This particular ASO partially blocks the production of the huntingtin protein, the mutant form of which causes HD. RG6042 is a non-allele-specific ASO: it reduces, or lowers, both the mutant and normal (wild type) huntingtin protein. Researchers in other labs are working with allele-specific approaches to target only the defective huntingtin protein.
As in the Ionis trial, in GENERATION HD1 doctors inject the ASO into the CSF with a spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture) into the so-called intrathecal space of the spine. Participants are receiving a monthly spinal tap over 25 months as part of a three-arm study (two with drug and one with placebo).
For details and background on GENERATION HD1 and the associated studies, click here, here, and here.
In late February, it was reported that Roche had agreed to pay $4.8 billion to acquire Spark Therapeutics, Inc., a Philadelphia-based biotech firm focusing on gene therapy approaches to genetic diseases, including HD. The potential significance of this pending deal is part of the discussion below.
Designing and executing the clinical trial program
Dr. Schobel, based at Roche’s headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, received his medical degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. From 2001-2012, he was affiliated with Columbia University in New York City. He interned in medicine and neurology, did a residency in psychiatry, and was an assistant professor in both medicine and clinical psychiatry.
In 2013, the year Ionis and Roche agreed on a partnership, Dr. Schobel joined Roche as a translational medicine leader - focusing on the discovery of potential treatments to go into clinical trials.
In December 2017, he became the associate medical group director and full-time clinical science leader for the RG6042 program. He oversees the scientific design and execution of GENERATION HD1 and the associated studies, including the selection of the target population, the length, dosing frequency and levels, clinical outcome measures, and selection and assessment of biomarkers (signs of a disease or a medicine’s effect on it).
Dr. Schobel’s team collaborates with Roche data scientists on the system of digital biomarkers. He is also supporting the regulatory efforts for seeking health authority approvals for the clinical studies to run in the various countries involved in the study. His team also addresses any adverse events (AEs) that clinical trial volunteers might experience in the program.
“Really in this field at this time, this is absolutely a dream job,” Dr. Schobel said. “I wake up every day with utter enthusiasm for the potential of this molecule and to make sure that we do the best by seeing if it works or not, because we still don’t know.”
At the HD Therapeutics conference, sponsored by CHDI Foundation, Inc., Dr. Schobel was the senior author of the scientific poster that won third place in a competition that involved a record 115 posters. The poster resulted from research based on electroencephalography (EEG) readings of brain waves taken from the participants in the Phase 1/2a trial.
The work confirmed the EEG readings as potential biomarkers for clinical studies. (Click here to watch a presentation of the poster by Lauren Boak, Ph.D., of Roche. For further background on EEG, click here.)
Just before our interview, Dr. Schobel participated in a CHDI panel discussion on the question: how should the HD community prepare to follow up on the results of the huntingtin-lowering clinical trials, whether positive or negative? We addressed that and other key themes.
Scott Schobel, Ph.D., M.S., of Roche, with Anne Smith, Ph.D., Ionis director of clinical development, at the 2019 HD Therapeutics Conference (photo by Gene Veritas)
Several years to complete the study
GV: How many participants have enrolled so far in GENERATION HD1?
I can say that there are several sites open already in the U.S., Canada, and, as we just announced, we’re imminently starting up in the United Kingdom and Spain. We’re essentially in a ramping up phase of the pivotal study.
I think we’ve had a good start, though. We've met our target to enroll either by the end of 2018 or early 2019. That’s a massive accomplishment, from only one year ago completing Phase 1. We’re happy and proud about that.
GV: For each participant, it’s a 25-month study. Can you project at this point how long the trial will last?
SS: We don’t know exactly at this point. If you assume that recruitment’s not going to happen overnight, and we have a two-year treatment length, then we have to plan on it being at least a few years for the primary outcome from the trial [to be ascertained]. It’s always based on when that last person is enrolled.
We think that [the 25-month study] length is necessary. We don’t want to sell short the ability to judge drug effect. It may take some time to determine adequately benefit/risk ratio.
Considering the broad continuum of HD
GV: The CHDI panel in which you participated today (February 26) asked how the HD community should prepare for both positive and negative trial results. What is the takeaway message?
I think there was a call for collaboration for leveraging the strength of the biological pathway [lowering the huntingtin protein] to enable more rapid assessment whether drugs are effective or not. I think there was a focus on being sensitive to covering the [various] stages of disease with the interventions [treatments] and not just focus narrowly on one stage of disease, but try to broaden that out, to de-risk the possibility that therapies may be more or less effective along [certain points of] the continuum of HD.
I was very thankful actually that CHDI organized that, because I think that getting us as a community, including industry but also academics and the broader community, to start thinking of these questions together proactively is a really good thing.
GV: The trial drug is for people aged 25 to 65. If the drug is successful and approved, would that mean that only people between 25 and 65 could take the drug? Would it specify that range on the label? Or would it be something that doctors could prescribe as they saw fit?
SS: This is a complex question, because it involves what regulators do when they grant a label, depending on study results. But we should not speculate.
Despite a scenario of regulatory approval, there’s still the issue of access to the medicine. For access, as I’ve learned from my colleagues who are focused on this area, this is about the evidence package in support of giving the medicine to a population who you know will benefit based upon the evidence.
We wanted to start with a target population we knew would be sensitive to decline over the observation period, so that if our drug works we can measure the effect.
The studies are designed to provide health authorities with the required data so that the benefit-risk of RG6042 can be determined as quickly as possible. The ultimate goal is that RG6042 can be approved by health authorities and made accessible to the broader HD community.
Because that’s our primary purpose: if we don’t set ourselves up for success on our trial, none of those issues will ever matter, because you haven’t even proved the main point in the population most likely to show an effect, in our best judgment. A little narrow by design, but with the ambition to go broader, with more evidence generation.
Building the evidence for RG6042
GV: What is your scientific assessment of RG6042 as a potential HD drug?
SS: I feel very good about the potential of RG6042,but there is more we need to learn to fully understand the benefits and risks of RG6042. I’m well aware of a truly exhaustive preclinical set of studies [in animals], which optimized this particular molecule for clinical development. That was done head-to-head versus allele-specific agents, other non-allele-specific ASO agents, and this candidate essentially proved that it was efficacious across multiple models and also safe and tolerated, including what is now a completed toxicology package, including a chronic nine-month study [the Phase 1/2a study, which involved four doses over three months, plus six months of observation]. I’m very confident that we have a good molecule in the clinic on that basis.
What’s now better still is that we’ve had our successful completion of the Phase 1/2a study. Though I can’t comment specifically on aspects of the ongoing OLE, because that will only be presented in organized forums like podium presentations, etc., I can say now that we’ve been in that study over a year, so that also gives me confidence that this is something that could be suitable for a chronic treatment paradigm.
I think the pieces that need to come in now are the things that are going to take a little longer, that might require some patience, importantly efficacy and long-term safety in a larger group of patients. We’ll await the randomized [Phase 3] trial result, as the ultimate confirmation of that.
The open-label extension is our most advanced study. We’re quite focused on learning about the drug from that study, comparing the two treatment regimens [different frequency of drug] and the associated safety/tolerability, PK of the drug [pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, and metabolism of a drug], PD [pharmacodynamics: effect and mechanism of a drug] and exploratory clinical outcomes over 15 months, although note this is in an open label/not placebo-controlled setting. That’s obviously going to finish before the end of the pivotal study.
We’re pairing that with a Natural History Study to understand what we can be most confident of measuring in the open-label study, which is measures on objective biomarkers like mutant huntingtin. We can compare that against this matched natural history cohort over a longer time frame to understand not only the longer term safety/tolerability from the OLE, but also then the putative efficacy on the biomarkers and the clinical outcomes and digital clinical outcomes that are in the OLE study.
We’re in a very good spot and moving forward.
Expanding access to other disease groups
GV: So, the people in OLE will stop at 15 months?
SS: No. There is another study, which actually has been drafted and planned, that is essentially an extension of the first OLE study. And that’s known as the GEN-EXTEND Study. That will be an extension study for all participants of Roche- or Genentech-sponsored studies: the OLE, NHS, and GENERATION HD1.
[In the U.S., Roche personnel and products still use the name Genentech, a major U.S.-based biotech firm acquired by Roche in 2009.]
GV: Let’s say GENERATION HD1 takes four years. So, the people from Phase 1 through GEN-EXTEND will be able to continue that entire time?
SS: Yes, that’s right – if they wish. We’re not going to leave anybody who’s been committing their precious time to be in a Roche study to not continue treatment while they wait.
GV: When you say “expand,” which you referred to at the CHDI panel, you’re thinking about including prodromal individuals at some point?
SS: Exactly. We need to get information from the lead studies in manifest HD first. Though we do not have a planned prodromal trial, we are actively thinking about what that would look like, should the lead studies be supportive of pursuing that route. We have a strategic mindset, and we indeed want to fully test the lowering hypothesis. And we fully believe that HD is a spectrum, so those planning discussions are consistent with that philosophy.
There are other aspects. As a part of drug development requirements, in the European Medicines Agency [the equivalent of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration] you’re required to come up with a pediatric investigational plan in juvenile HD, which we care about greatly as well.
That desire comes from a place of having seen and interacted a lot with the community and understanding the severe unmet need of [treating] juvenile HD on the one hand and also the highly compelling nature of preventing the decline from occurring in the first place, the ultimate goal of a Huntington’s therapy. Symptom reduction is great, and we hope to have great effects in manifest, but well recognize that the ultimate goal would be to help, let’s say, the “generation next” that’s coming.
Gaining confidence in the drug
GV: Since the confirmation of Phase 3 at the 2018 CHDI meeting, what new insights have you gained about the drug and HD, including from the open-label extension of Phase 1/2a? Can you elaborate on anything beyond what we’ve already discussed?
SS: I can just say that, broadly speaking, we’re very happy to be in the position where we have an open-label extension study that’s generating information on a regular basis. That gives us more confidence in the chronic therapy paradigm. We weren’t there a year ago. We just had had a four-dose study. Now we’ve had an OLE study running over a year. Further details from that will need to await our organized planned presentations, but we fully intend to share on that experience as this year progresses. The details of that are pending an ongoing set of analyses that we have.
GV: Have there been any adverse events in the OLE?
SS: Well, every drug program has AEs. There are nuances and details of what kinds of AEs. I’m just not at liberty to talk about those at this time, mainly because we don’t have the analysis on our full data set and we will be presenting at a later date during the course of the year.
GV: But if something severe happened, you’d have to stop.
SS: Exactly. A really critical aspect of that is that we’re required by regulatory authorities to give any update of new safety signals, and we do that, if it comes up. Similarly, we have regular feedback from our network of investigators. So, it’s this sort of constant triad of communication that we do. We’re watching this with a magnifying glass.
GV: Are there any new findings that you can report regarding biomarkers?
SS: Clearly this is of high interest to everyone. We fully intend to communicate this type of information as it becomes available and as the program matures. I think we’re well-positioned with this drug to anticipate more biomarker findings.
The Spark acquisition and broadening the drug playing field
GV: What does Roche’s pending acquisition of Spark Therapeutics mean for GENERATION HD1?
SS: Just a disclaimer: I’m not allowed to speak of any details. The short answer is: absolutely no effect on GENERATION HD1. We’re fully committed to developing this ASO, RG6042.
GV: I meant in a positive sense, not that it’s going to interrupt GENERATION HD1. But, with Spark’s knowledge and technology entering into the mix, what other possibilities does it open up for Roche in terms of tackling HD?
SS: I think it does, broadly speaking, open up possibilities. I think it’s premature, even for our program, to give a specific answer about how that might take shape other than to give the general message that it’s a positive. Broadening the playing field of therapeutic options that lower huntingtin is a good thing. I think that should be rightfully recognized by the HD community as well.
GV: They and other people work with viruses to deliver drugs. Is there any way RG6042 could be delivered via a virus?
SS: I don’t know the answer to that question. ASOs don’t need vectors, because basically they freely diffuse into cells and tissues. I don’t know that you’d even want to go to the trouble of putting it into a virus. As long as you’re getting an ASO into the CNS [central nervous system], to the intrathecal space, that in principle could be up high through the ventricles [the center of the brain] or anywhere along the neural axis [CNS]. It’s never come up as a strategic priority or focus.
What we are focused on is exploring alternate modes of delivery for the ASO. We like the idea that ASO therapy generally is periodic, dose titratable [adjustable], reversible. The thing we hope to do over time is to be able to learn and optimize a frequency of administration and dose of administration, to limit the burden of repeated lumbar punctures. Maybe through a device you don’t have to always access the intrathecal space. These are things we actually think about, because we well recognize that if this therapy works, it will be a chronic therapy.
Alternative drug delivery methods
GV: Is there any update you can give on brain shuttle research at Roche? As a technology that could get a drug past the blood-brain barrier, the brain shuttle might allow for a drug in the form of a pill.
SS: The brain shuttle technology is generally being pursued at Roche aggressively. It is not our lead strategy with this molecule, which is already having such promise through the intrathecal route. Could that still be a future possibility? I can’t really speculate on that, because it’s right now not in our core focus. What we need to do now with this ASO is test the hypothesis: does it work for HD? We know that that we can do that successfully with confidence through the intrathecal route. Once we do that, then we open up all kinds of possibilities for delivery modalities, including, in principle, technologies like the brain shuttle.
GV: You mentioned the word device. Would that be a pump?
SS: You must give ASOs by bolus injection [a single, large administration of a drug], generally. That promotes distribution. If there were a lumbar intrathecal device, it could help you access that bolus through a subcutaneous route and a port rather than needing to always go with the spinal needle into the intrathecal space. That kind of innovation is an example of what we’re actively thinking about.
I can say that the intrathecal procedure, having now been steeped in it – and I’ve done a lot of lumbar punctures in my past role as a medical doctor before joining Roche, I’ve never done intrathecal dosing, but I’ve seen a lot now, talked a lot, and we know how it’s going in our studies – this is essentially a 20-minute procedure that’s outpatient.
We collaborate very closely with our investigator network that does intrathecal. This is the big focus: to educate. I helped co-produce a video of best practice that we’re using in our investigator network. I think those are the kinds of efforts that we need to be doing as a community, to promote best practices and the ability to receive the drug, if it works.